Acta Gymnica, 2017 (vol. 47), issue 2

Parent-child behavioural patterns related to pre-schoolers' overweight/obesity

Dagmar Sigmundová, Erik Sigmund, Petr Badura, Jana Vokáčová, Daniel Klein, Jens Bucksch

Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(2):53-63 | 10.5507/ag.2017.012

Background: The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a global concern. Although childhood obesity has grown as a result of a complex array of interactions among multiple behavioural, biological, and environmental factors, excessive screen time (ST) and low levels of physical activity (PA) are often discussed as causal factors. Therefore, it is beneficial to identify risky family behavioural patterns contributing to the increasing prevalence of obesity even in pre-schoolers. Objective: The main aim of the study was to assess whether parental obesity and parent-child behavioural patterns (PA and ST) affect the odds of overweight/obesity in 4-to-7-year-old...

Pubertal development, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among South Korean adolescents

Eun-Young Lee, Valerie Carson, John C. Spence

Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(2):64-71 | 10.5507/ag.2017.010

Background: Sex differences in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are well-established. However, recent research suggested that variations in pubertal development may explain sex differences in PA and SB among adolescents. Objective: This study examined whether pubertal development mediates the relationship between sex and PA, and SB respectively. Methods: The 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey included data from 74,186 students in grades 7 to 12 (mean age = 14.94 ± 1.8; 48.5% girls). Pubertal development was indicated by the year in which the student reported they had experienced menarche for...

Unilateral leg resistance training improves time to task failure of the contralateral untrained leg

Nosratollah Hedayatpour, Ali Golestani, Zahra Izanloo, Mina Meghdadi

Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(2):72-77 | 10.5507/ag.2017.008

Background: Cross-training is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to enhancements in the performance of the opposite, untrained limb, most likely due to neural adaptations at the level of the motor cortex and/or spinal cord. Objective: To investigate whether unilateral resistance training can affect the ability of untrained homologous muscle in the contralateral limb to maintain force output over a sustained contraction. Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects completed 12 weeks of resistance training consisting of 36 sessions, using the unilateral leg press exercise. Sustained isometric knee extension performed at 50% of maximal force until...

Upper body strength and power are associated with shot speed in men's ice hockey

Juraj Bežák, Vladimír Přidal

Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(2):78-83 | 10.5507/ag.2017.007

Background: Recent studies that addressed shot speed in ice hockey have focused on the relationship between shot speed and variables such as a player's skills or hockey stick construction and its properties. There has been a lack of evidence that considers the relationship between shot speed and player strength, particularly in players at the same skill level. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between maximal puck velocity of two shot types (the wrist shot and the slap shot) and players' upper body strength and power. Methods: Twenty male professional and semi-professional ice hockey players (mean age 23.3 ± 2.4 years)...

Gender differences in the preparation for take-off in elite long jumpers

Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Apostolos S. Theodorou, Georgios I. Papaiakovou

Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(2):84-91 | 10.5507/ag.2017.011

Background: Research on gender differences of elite long jumpers in competition, although limited, provides useful information concerning the execution of the technique elements of the event. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore possible gender differences of the spatiotemporal parameters and their development during the final steps of the approach executed by elite jumpers during a major international competition. Methods: The jumpers competed in the 2009 International Amateur Athletics Federation World Athletics Final (7 males and 7 females; official distance: 7.83 ± 0.22 m and 6.58 ± 0.20 m, respectively) were recorded...

Reliability and validity of a basketball-specific fatigue protocol simulating match load

Karel Hůlka, Michal Lehnert, Jan Bělka

Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(2):92-98 | 10.5507/ag.2017.009

Background: Research on the amount and type of fatigue caused by match load depends on protocols based on time-motion analysis of match performance in a given sport. The role of these protocols is to accurately simulate specific player match load, which is, contrary to a match, identical for all participants. Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability and validity using a basketball-specific fatigue protocol simulating player's performance during a basketball match. Methods: The study involved a total of 25 male basketball players (age 17.4 ± 1.5 years; body height 185.1 ± 7.4 cm...